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The old concept of the rule of law can be distinguished from the rule of law, according to political science professor Li Shuguang: “The difference. is that the law is of paramount importance in the context of the rule of law and can serve as a control against abuses of power. According to the law, the law is a mere tool for a government that oppresses legalistically. [41] In addition to these debates about the value of the rule of law, there is an incessant controversy in the camp of those who defend legality over what the rule of law requires. I mentioned the general debates between advocates of formal, procedural and substantive concepts. There are also a number of special debates. Education plays an important role in promoting the rule of law and a culture of legality. Essentially, it provides an important protective function by strengthening learners` abilities to cope with and overcome life`s difficult situations. Young people can make an important contribution to a culture of legitimacy, and governments can provide educational support that fosters positive values and attitudes in future generations. [98] Beyond these generalities, what the rule of law requires is controversial.

This is partly because the rule of law is a working political idea, both the property of ordinary citizens, lawyers, activists and politicians, as well as the lawyers and philosophers who study it. The characteristics to which ordinary people draw attention are not necessarily the characteristics that legal philosophers have emphasized in their academic conceptions. Legal philosophers tend to emphasize the formal elements of the rule of law, such as rule by general norms (not by specific decrees); govern by pre-established standards (not retrospective decrees); govern by standards made public (not hidden in the offices of the administration); and govern according to clear and specific legal norms (norms whose meaning is not so vague or questionable that those subject to them are at the mercy of official discretion). But that`s not necessarily what ordinary people have in mind when they call for the rule of law; They often think of the absence of corruption, the independence of the judiciary and a presumption in favour of freedom. The Statute of the Council of Europe characterises the rule of law as one of the fundamental principles on which the creation of the organisation is based. (Dicey 1992 [1885]: 110) The Treaty for the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments or Roerich Pact is an intra-American treaty. The most important idea of the Roerich Pact is the legal recognition that the defence of cultural property is more important than the use or destruction of that culture for military purposes, and that the protection of culture always takes precedence over any military necessity. [93] The Roerich Pact, signed on April 15, 1935 by representatives of 21 U.S. states in the Oval Office of the White House (Washington, DC). It was the first international treaty signed in the Oval Office.

[94] The Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict is the first international treaty to focus on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict. It was signed in The Hague on 14 May 1954 and signed on 7 May 1954. August 1956. As of June 2017, it had been ratified by 128 states. [95] Ideas about the rule of law have been at the heart of political and legal thought since at least the 4th century BC. J.-C., when Aristotle distinguished “the rule of law” from “that of an individual”. In the 18th century, the French political philosopher Montesquieu developed a doctrine of the rule of law that opposed the legitimate authority of monarchs to the whims of despots. .